Have, has, had

Dem engelska orden have, has och had kan på svenska översättas till ha, har och hade. Men det är inte alltid lätt att veta vilket av dessa ord som ska användas och särskilt svårt kan det vara att välja mellan have och has som båda kan användas i betydelsen har.

Vad som skiljer ut situationer när det ska vara have respektive has är: 1) är det singular eller plural? 2) vilket pronomen är det? Dessa två regler är viktigast att hålla reda på när du ska översätta svenskans har till engelska. Mer regler som kan vara aktuella presenteras tillsammans med exempel längre ned.

Tempus

Hur have, has och had används beroende på tempus.

Presens (the present)
I have jag har
you have du har
he, she, it has han, hon, det har
we have vi har
you have ni har
they have de har

Have används alltså alltid förutom ett undantag i presens som uttrycker nutid.

Preteritum (the past)
I had jag hade
you had du hade
he, she, it had han, hon, det hade
we had vi hade
you had ni hade
they had de hade

Had används alltså alltid i preteritum som uttrycker dåtid.

Perfekt (the perfect)
I have had jag har haft
you have had du har haft
he, she, it has had han, hon, det har haft
we have had vi har haft
you have had ni har haft
they have had de har haft

Perfekt är ett sammansatt tempus som uttrycker förluten tid.

Pluskvamperfekt (pluperfect, or past perfect)
I had had jag hade haft
you had had du hade haft
he, she, it had had han, hon, det hade haft
we had had vi hade haft
you had had ni hade haft
they had had de hade haft

Pluskvamperfekt är ett sammansatt tempus som uttrycker förluten tid.

Futurum (the future)
I will have jag ska ha
you will have du ska ha
he, she, it will have han, hon, det ska ha
we will have vi ska ha
you will have ni ska ha
they will have de ska ha

Will have används alltså alltid i futurum som är ett sammansatt tempus som uttrycker framtid.

Modus

Have kan även användas som modus och då det som kallas konditionalis.

Konditionalis (the conditional)
I would have jag skulle ha
you would have du skulle ha
he, she, it would have han, hon, det skulle ha
we would have vi skulle ha
you would have ni skulle ha
they would have de skulle ha

Have

Have används för de flesta pronomen (I/you/we/they) och även då ordet föregås av substantiv i plural.
Exempel I have a cat.
Regel: I have

You can have my coat.
Regel: you have

We don’t have any pets.
Regel: we have

Four chapters have been edited.
Regel: they (four chapters) have

Tommy's ideas seems to have been the most popular.
Regel: have föregås av substantiv i plural (ideas)

Has

Has används i presens och perfekt för pronomenen he, she och it, det vill säga tredje person singular.
Exempel He has a dog.
Regel: he has

She has been sick for a while.
Regel: she has

It has to be right.
Regel: it has

Chapter four has been edited.
Regel: it (Chapter four) has

Had

Had kan översättas till både hade och haft, men används också i betydelsen var tvungen att (had to).
Exempel They had many things to do. De hade många saker att göra.
Charles had nothing to do with the robbery. Charles hade inget med rånet att göra.
We had never heard of him. Vi hade aldrig hört talas om honom.
She had to leave. Hon var tvungen att åka.
He had to abandon the ship. Han var tvungen att överge skeppet.

Do-konstruktion

I frågor och nekande fraser används have även i tredje person singular och då med en do-konstruktion (inkl. did som är förfluten form av do).
Exempel He doesn't have any idea.
It doesn't have to be right.
What did you have in mind?

Have been eller has been?

Även här gäller reglerna promomen samt singular/plural.
Exempel I have been sick lately.
Regel: I have

They have been found guilty.
Regel: they have

It could be claimed that Indians have been marginalized.
Regel: have föregås av substantiv i plural (Indians)

The car has been wrecked.
Regel: It (The car) has

Have become eller has become?

Ordet become kan föregås av både have eller has beroende på pronomenet.
Exempel I have become
you have become
he, she, it has become
we have become
you have become
they have become

Notera också att i pluskvamperfekt heter det: [pronomen] had become.

Kända personer

När kända personer omnämns ska has användas, till exempel: William Shakespeare has been considered as one of the greatest writers.

Fel eller rätt? Exempel med have och has

Rätt They have established a music company.
Fel They has established a music company.
Regel: they have

Rätt One has the right to...
Fel One have the right to...
Regel: singular (one) has

Rätt Everyone has the right to...
Fel Everyone have the right to...
Regel: singular (everyone) has

Rätt Studies have shown that people…
Fel Studies has shown that people…
Regel: plural (Studies) have

Rätt The keys that have been left...
Fel The keys that has been left...
Regel: plural (The keys) have

Rätt If two players have a flush...
Fel If two players has a flush...
Regel: plural (two players) have

Rätt When a player has attempted 24 shots...
Fel When a player have attempted 24 shots...
Regel: singular (a player) has

Rätt The page you requested has moved or doesn't exist.
Fel The page you requested have moved or doesn't exist.
Regel: it (The page) has

Rätt I will have more time for my family from now on.
Fel I will has more time for my family from now on.
Regel: futurum (will) have

Rätt H.G. Wells has got a reputation as one of the inventors of the science fiction.
Fel H.G. Wells have got a reputation as one of the inventors of the science fiction.
Regel: känd person (H.G. Wells) has

Rätt A song don't have to include a chorus.
Fel A song don't has to include a chorus.
Regel: don't have

Rätt The writer must have been doing lots of research.
Fel The writer must has been doing lots of research.
Regel: must have

Rätt There are occasions when it's suitable to have a certain finger free.
Fel There are occasions when it's suitable to has a certain finger free.
Regel: to have